Species Authority: The species authority, or the name(s) of scientist(s) or person(s) who first described Carduelis xanthogastra is (Du Bus de Gisignies, 1855) (IUCN Red List).
Summary: Binomial name Carduelis xanthogastra
( Du Bus de Gisignies), 1855
The Yellow-bellied Siskin, Carduelis xanthogastra, is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae. It breeds from Costa Rica south to southern Ecuador, central Bolivia and the highlands of northwestern Venezuela.
The Yellow-bellied Siskin breeds in mountain oak forests at altitudes between 800-3000 m. The nest is a shallow cup of rootlets, bark, and lichen 2.4-3.7 m high in the dense foliage of a small tree in a clearing. The two or three green-tinged white eggs are laid in April or May and incubated by the female. Although not migratory, this species wanders within its range when not breeding.
The Yellow-bellied Siskin is a small bird, 10.5 cm in length and weighing 12g. The male is entirely black except for a bright yellow belly, tail sides and wing patches. The female is dark olive green above, and has pale yellow underparts which become brighter on the belly. She has a blackish tail and wings and also has bright yellow primary wing patches and tail sides . Young birds resemble the female, but have dusky fringes to the upperpart feathers and smaller yellow wing and tail patches. The song of this bird is a pleasant chattering twitter, and the call is a sharp pyee.
The subspecies C. x. stejnegeri which occurs from extreme southeastern Peru to central Bolivia is larger and longer-billed than nominate C. x. xanthogastra. Males have larger yellow wing patchesn and more extensive black on the flanks. Females of this subspecies are darker olive above than the northern birds.
The Yellow-bellied Siskin is more of a woodland bird than the superficially similar Lesser Goldfinch, Carduelis psaltria, and the latter species is paler, has a white wing patch, and more musical song.
The Yellow-bellied Siskin has been relentless persecuted for the cage-bird trade in some areas such as central Costa Rica. Where it remains common, in remote or protected areas, flocks of up to 30 birds forage in the canopy for small insects and oak flowers, or descend to clearings for seeds. The males may sing socially.(Wikipedia).
Country Distribution: Carduelis xanthogastra is found in the following countries:
Biome(s)/Ecosystem(s): IUCN lists the following as biomes for Carduelis xanthogastra: Terrestrial (IUCN Red List).
Major Habitat(s): 1.9 Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane 11.6 Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest (IUCN Red List).
Range: This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 150,000 km. The global population size has not been quantified, but it is believed to be large as the species is described as 'frequent' in at least parts of its range (Stotz et al. 1996). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. (IUCN Red List).
Red List Category & Criteria: Carduelis xanthogastra is listed as LC ver 3.1 (2001) (IUCN Red List).
Year Assessed: Carduelis xanthogastra's status was assessed in 2004 (IUCN Red List).
Assessor: Carduelis xanthogastra's Red List status was evaluated by BirdLife International (IUCN Red List).
Red List Evaluator: The Red List Evaluator for Carduelis xanthogastra is listed by IUCN as Ekstrom, J. & Butchart, S. (BirdLife International Red List Authority) (IUCN Red List).
Red List Rational / Justification : Carduelis xanthogastra is listed by IUCN for the following: This species has a large range, with an estimated global extent of occurrence of 150,000 km. The global population size has not been quantified, but it is believed to be large as the species is described as 'frequent' in at least parts of its range (Stotz et al. 1996). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e., declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. (IUCN Red List).
Red List History: Carduelis xanthogastra was listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 1988 (IUCN Red List).
Data Sources for IUCN data: The following is a list of citations from the IUCN web site for Carduelis xanthogastra:
Citations listed by IUCN
Bird Reference Citations. The numbers inserted in the text accounts above (usually in bold) refer to references. For further details on these references, click on the BirdLife International link above to go to the specific species account on the BirdLife web site. In some cases, particularly in the taxonomic notes, the references are cited using the author names. Details for these can be found on the BirdLife International web site at the following two places:
BirdLife International. 2000. Threatened Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, U.K.
BirdLife International. 2004 Threatened Birds of the World 2004. CD-ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.(IUCN Red List).
Links: IUCN Red List Profile for Carduelis xanthogastra (IUCN Red List). links_1.txt" -->Carduelis xanthogastra-->photo of a male (Wikipedia).
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