Puffinus gravis

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Procellariiformes
Family: Procellariidae

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Arkive.org


Puffinus gravis

Puffinus gravis is a chordate, or more specifically a bird, in the Procellariidae family.

Puffinus gravis is commonly known (its common name) as the Great Shearwater in English.

Puffinus gravis is classified as least concern by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species maintained by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.




Species Authority: The species authority, or the name(s) of scientist(s) or person(s) who first described Puffinus gravis is (O'Reilly, 1818) (IUCN Red List).

Summary: [an error occurred while processing this directive] (Wikipedia).

Country Distribution: Puffinus gravis is found in the following countries:
    Algeria [vag], Angola [vag], Aruba [vag], Australia [vag], Brazil, Cayman Islands [vag], Denmark [vag], Dominica [vag], Dominican Republic [vag], Falkland Islands (Malvinas), France, Gabon [vag], Germany [vag], Ghana [vag], Gibraltar [vag], Ireland, Israel [vag], Italy [vag], Lebanon [vag], Liberia [vag], Morocco [vag], Netherlands [vag], Netherlands Antilles [vag], Portugal, Saint Helena, Saint Lucia [vag], Spain, Suriname [vag], Sweden [vag], United Kingdom, United States, Virgin Islands, British [vag]
(IUCN Red List).

Biome(s)/Ecosystem(s): IUCN lists the following as biomes for Puffinus gravis: Terrestrial; Marine (IUCN Red List).

Major Habitat(s): 1.3 Forest - Subantarctic 4.3 Grassland - Subantarctic 9.1 Sea - Open (IUCN Red List).

Range: Puffinus gravis breeds at three main sites: Nightingale and Inaccessible islands in the Tristan da Cunha group, and Gough Island, Tristan da Cunha (to UK) (Snow and Perrins 1998, Carboneras 1992d). This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 52.8 million km. A minimum of 5,000,000 pairs are thought to breed at Tristan da Cunha, and 600,000 to 3,000,000 pairs at Gough (Carboneras 1992d). Birds also breed in small numbers in the Falkland Islands (to UK), where the only confirmed site is Kidney Island (no more than 15 pairs recorded in 1987 (Woods 1988)), though there is a slight possibilty of breeding near Wineglass Hill, East Falkland, where one has been caught (Woods and Woods 1997). The species has a large global population estimated to be 16,500,000 individuals (Fishpool and Evans 2001). Adults begin a transequatorial migration in April, moving north-west to South America, up to Canada, past Greenland and onto the north-east Atlantic before returning south in November to the breeding islands (Carboneras 1992d, Harrison 1983). The species breeds on sloping ground, mainly in areas of tussock grass or Phylica woodland. It feeds mostly on fish, squid and fish offal (attending trawlers, sometimes in large numbers), and also on some crustaceans (Carboneras 1992d). Global population trends have not been quantified, but several thousand adults and c.50,000 chicks are harvested every year from Nightingale Island by Tristan Islanders, which could lead to the collapse of the population without research into sustainable harvesting levels (Carboneras 1992d). Although there is no real evidence of threats to the tiny confirmed Falkland breeding population, predation by feral cats at Wineglass Hill would be a threat to any breeding there (R. Woods in litt. 1999). Despite this, the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. (IUCN Red List).

CONSERVATION STATUS

Red List Category & Criteria: Puffinus gravis is listed as LC    ver 3.1 (2001) (IUCN Red List).

Year Assessed: Puffinus gravis's status was assessed in 2004 (IUCN Red List).

Assessor: Puffinus gravis's Red List status was evaluated by BirdLife International (IUCN Red List).

Red List Evaluator: The Red List Evaluator for Puffinus gravis is listed by IUCN as Stattersfield, A., Ekstrom, J. & Butchart, S. (BirdLife International Red List Authority) (IUCN Red List).

Red List Rational / Justification : Puffinus gravis is listed by IUCN for the following: Puffinus gravis breeds at three main sites: Nightingale and Inaccessible islands in the Tristan da Cunha group, and Gough Island, both Tristan da Cunha (to UK) (Snow and Perrins 1998, Carboneras 1992d). A minimum of 5,000,000 pairs are thought to breed at Tristan da Cunha, and 600,000 to 3,000,000 pairs at Gough (Carboneras 1992d). Birds also breed in small numbers in the Falkland Islands (to UK), where the only confirmed site is Kidney Island (no more than 15 pairs recorded in 1987 (Woods 1988)), though there is a slight possibilty of breeding near Wineglass Hill, East Falkland, where one has been caught (Woods and Woods 1997). Adults begin a transequatorial migration in April, moving north-west to South America, up to Canada, past Greenland and onto the north-east Atlantic before returning south in November to the breeding islands (Carboneras 1992d, Harrison 1983). The species breeds on sloping ground, mainly in areas of tussock grass or Phylica woodland. It feeds mostly on fish, squid and fish offal (attending trawlers, sometimes in large numbers), and also on some crustaceans (Carboneras 1992d). Several thousand adults and ca. 50,000 chicks are harvested every year from Nightingale Island by Tristan Islanders, which could lead to the collapse of the population without research into sustainable harvesting levels (Carboneras 1992d). There is no real evidence of threats to the tiny confirmed Falkland breeding population, although predation by feral cats at Wineglass Hill would be a threat to any breeding there (R. Woods in litt. 1999). This species has a large range, with an estimated global breeding extent of occurrence of 50,000100,000 km. It has a large global population estimated to be 16,500,000 individuals (Fishpool and Evans 2001). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e., declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. (IUCN Red List).

Red List History: Puffinus gravis was listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in 1988 (IUCN Red List).

Data Sources for IUCN data: The following is a list of citations from the IUCN web site for Puffinus gravis:

Citations listed by IUCN

Bird Reference Citations. The numbers inserted in the text accounts above (usually in bold) refer to references. For further details on these references, click on the BirdLife International link above to go to the specific species account on the BirdLife web site. In some cases, particularly in the taxonomic notes, the references are cited using the author names. Details for these can be found on the BirdLife International web site at the following two places:
For References from A–L.
For References from M–Z.

BirdLife International. 2000. Threatened Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, U.K.

BirdLife International. 2004 Threatened Birds of the World 2004. CD-ROM. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

(IUCN Red List).

Links: IUCN Red List Profile for Puffinus gravis (IUCN Red List).

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